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时间: 2016-7-18 10:22:45    作者: 佚名    来源:中国论文    查看:

唐朝司法制度是唐朝法律制度的重要组成部分。本文主要比较研究唐朝司法制度与东罗马帝国、中古印度、阿拉伯帝国、新罗、日本司法制度,以及论述高丽王朝、越南李朝等继受唐朝司法制度的情况、对后世诸朝、少数民族政权的影响情况。通过与东罗马帝国、中古印度、阿拉伯帝国、新罗、日本司法机构比较研究表明,唐朝司法机构设...

唐朝司法制度是唐朝法律制度的重要组成部分。本文主要比较研究唐朝司法制度与东罗马帝国、中古印度、阿拉伯帝国、新罗、日本司法制度,以及论述高丽王朝、越南李朝等继受唐朝司法制度的情况、对后世诸朝、少数民族政权的影响情况。通过与东罗马帝国、中古印度、阿拉伯帝国、新罗、日本司法机构比较研究表明,唐朝司法机构设置十分健全,而中古印度、东罗马帝国的司法机构很不健全,二者基本上有审判机关,而没有监察和司法行政机关。阿拉伯帝国直到8世纪时的阿巴斯王朝才正式建立司法审判机构。新罗和日本的司法机构从唐朝继受而来,有很大的相似性。通过与东罗马帝国、中古印度、阿拉伯帝国对比诉讼制度,研究表明,唐对诉讼规定很细,从告发、受理到调解等都有规范,且对诉讼有很多限制。这些限制中有些规定,如亲亲相隐的诉讼限制有一定的伦理关怀,与现代法制中的亲属作证特免权类似。唐朝还有一项调解制度,从乡、里、坊直到中央司法机关,都有调解的责任和义务。在阿拉伯帝国,也允许调解,但是,不是司法官员的调解,而是信徒之间的调和。在中古印度社会里,基层的村社首脑帕特尔也负责调解居民纠纷,说明也有调解规定。东罗马帝国实行的非程式诉讼,即非常诉讼,与唐朝的诉讼程序很相似。都强调了司法官员的主动性和公权力的介入。区别在于唐朝诉讼性质不分民事和刑事,只要有诉讼案件,除了能调解的外,都采用刑事手段来受理。而东罗马帝国时期,延续了罗马共和国以来的司法传统,在受理诉讼案件上区分了民事和刑事,当事人可以依个人情况决定提起何种诉讼,如果提起民事诉讼,被告将受到财产处罚;如果采取刑事诉讼,被告将受到人身处罚。新罗和日本在诉讼制度上,建立了与唐朝一致的先进的诉讼制度。日本在继受唐朝司法制度的同时,也输入了唐朝所代表的中华礼乐文化,所以,在有关回避制度、拷讯制度、诉讼制度等方面,都有儒家文化的因子。与唐朝司法制度内含的维护君权、维护伦理道德的精神和原则是一致的。通过比较审判制度,表明,唐朝司法行政与司法审判分立。在审判程序上,法律对传票、证据的获得、证人的限制、对法官的要求、刑讯、死刑复核、上诉等的规定相当精确,体现了唐朝较高的立法水平。中古印度除了王室法院外,没有固定的司法机构,只能靠官员在各处巡察办案。审判上,也只有对证人、证据的规定,没有庭审和上诉。而且中古印度大多数案件是以神判为主。阿拉伯帝国和东罗马帝国的审判程序相对而言,比较规范,对证据、证人、庭审、上诉等有较明确的规定。阿拉伯帝国审判制度分为专门审理穆斯林案件和非穆斯林案件的两种制度。对穆斯林案件的审理,司法官员必须要根据当事人所属教法派的主张来审理,非穆斯林案件根据当事人的信仰来审理。东罗马帝国案件不公开审理,当事人还需要支付诉讼费,证据由主张权利的人提供。在审判期限上,唐朝不仅规定了审判期限,而且还以单行法形式规定了物权诉讼时效。而罗马法只有诉讼时限和物权诉讼时效。在法官责任追究和保护方面,罗马法没有明文规定。而唐朝律法明确了司法官员的责任和对司法官员的保护措施。通过比较司法监察制度,研究表明,唐朝司法监督制度规范,分为内外两个部分。内部监督是司法机构系统内的监督,外部监督机制是由御史台制度、谏官制度、录囚制度等组成。内外已经构成了一个严密的监察体系。而中古印度没有像唐朝那样的专门的监察机关,只是上级监督下级,国王监督地方。而对于国王司法活动的监督,则是寄希望于宗教约束。阿拉伯帝国的阿巴斯王朝时期,麦查里木院是近似于司法监督的机关。东罗马帝国则没有具体的司法监督机构,而是由各级行政首脑兼理司法,进而监督下级的司法活动。罗马皇帝则监督整个帝国的司法活动。通过比较监狱制度,研究结果表明,唐朝监狱制度已经具有现代监狱四大功能中的三个,即控制功能、惩罚功能和维护功能。而且实行男女犯人分开关押。唐朝的监狱不仅关押自由刑犯人,也有与罗马监狱一样的职能,关押待决犯和临时羁押犯。中古印度、阿拉伯帝国监狱带有明显的惩罚性质。通过比较,结论是,唐朝司法制度成就辉煌,具体如下1、它是7-9世纪亚洲司法制度的最高成就。7-9世纪,亚洲各国中,印度还在使用宗教法典—《摩奴法论》,没有完备的世俗法律,更不要说司法制度了。只有阿拉伯帝国司法制度可与唐朝司法制度相提并论。但是直到阿拉伯帝国的阿巴斯王朝时期,司法制度才逐步建立起来,王朝的法制还很不完备的。故此,在司法制度的完备性、先进性方面远远不如唐朝。而东亚的统一新罗和日本正处在社会转型和法制继受阶段,正是通过继受唐朝司法制度,才使得各自国家建立起先进的司法制度,走上中古新兴国家的行列,形成新的东亚国际关系格局。2、它也是当时世界司法制度的杰出代表。7-9世纪的世界上,能真正与唐朝比肩的除了亚洲的阿拉伯帝国,就是地跨欧亚大陆的东罗马帝国了。6世纪东罗马帝国皇帝组织编撰的《国法大全》,尽管标志着罗马法已经发展到最发达、最完备阶段,是欧洲历史上第一部系统完整的法典,也是欧洲近代以后大部分国家法律发展的基础。但它却是奴隶制末期历史上一部最完备的成文法典,而唐朝的《唐律疏议》已经是封建时代的法律集大成者了。3、唐律所代表的中华法系是中华文明成就的智慧结晶。中华法系在立法目的、理论、法典编制等方面与罗马法所代表的罗马法系存在很大的不同。同时,在古代四大文明区域,中华文明是唯一没有中断的文明形态。故此,中华法系也是四大文明古国中唯一存在的法系。唐律是建立在中华礼乐文明之上的,所以在中华法系影响所及的区域,伴随着唐朝司法制度的传入,中华礼乐文明的制度文化、思想文化也跟着传入进来。正是因为继受了唐律,才传入了礼乐文明,而礼乐文明的到来则改变着当地文化,推动着当地的发展。最终,导致了东亚文化的统一。而“东亚历史文化的统一,乃中国文化向东亚邻近诸国辐射的产物。”①这也足以说明了唐朝司法制度在世界上的地位的特殊。
【关键词】 唐朝; 7-9世纪; 司法制度; 比较研究;
 The Tang Dynasty justicial system is an important part of the legal system. This paper mainly deals with the comparison of the judicial system of Tang Dynasty, Eastern Roman Empire, medieval India, the Arab Empire, Silla and Japanese. And discusses the influence of Koryo dynasty, Vietnam by Tang Dynasty.and other justice system following the situation in North Korea on all future generations, a few The impact of national political situation.Through comparing the judicial organ with the Eastern Roman Empire, medieval India、the Arab Empire、Silla and Japan, this shows that the Tang Dynasty’s is more complete than that of medieval India, the Eastern Roman Empire, which are basically two trials authority, without supervising organ and judicial administrative organ. Arab Empire has not the judicial organ until the Abbasid establishes justicial institutions in the 8th century. Silla and Japan have more similarity with the Tang Dynasty’s, which are following by the judiciary that comes from the Tang Dynasty.Through comparing litigation system with the eastern Roman empire, medieval India and Arab empire, this studies show that, the Tang Dynasty’s lawsuit has many restrictions on litigation and very fine prescribed that it has good standard of prosecuting, accepting and arbitrating.Some of these restrictions, such as "Kiss of hidden, "in the lawsuit has certain ethical care, and similar to testify from relatives of right in the modern legal system.The Tang dynasty has a arbitrating system. judicial authority which is from the townships, to subdivision(坊) has duties and obligations to arbitrate case. In Arab empire, there is arbitrating, but not judicial officials, between believers harmonic. In medieval Indian society, grass-roots village head also has duties and obligations to arbitrate case.The east Roman empire emphasized judicial officials initiative and public power intervention, namely the program litigation in the Tang Dynasty. But the Tang Dynasty has not difference in the of civil and criminal lawsuits, and regardless of lawsuits, uses criminal means to accept. The east Roman empire, accepting judicial tradition of the Roman republic, has difference in the of civil and criminal lawsuits. The parties in case may decide what is a civil lawsuit, or a criminal case.If criminal proceedings are accepted, that the defendant will be punished. And Japan and Silla have established an advanced litigation system, which is more similar to the Tang Dynasty’s.The judicial system in Silla has a characteristic of adiel diplomacy, because of according to the development of the korean peninsula. The judicial system in Japan adopted on the Tang Dynasty, transplants Chinese music and culture and contains monarchy, maintenance ethics spirit and principles. Through comparing the judicial system, this shows that the judicial administrative and judicatory are divided. In the trial, the laws appeal quite accurate about the evidences of the acquisition, the witness to a judge restrictions, the request of a judge, inquisition by torture, review of death sentence and appeal.this shows that it has more higher legislation level of Tang Dynasty. Medieval India, in addition to the royal court, has not fixed judicial institution, which can rely on officials handling everywhere.Its Judge, has also only to witness, evidence regulation, without trial and appeal. And medieval India mainly applies god’s judgment in most cases. The trial procedure of the Arab empire and the eastern Roman empire is more normative, relative to evidence, witnesses, trial and appeal, and so on have clear rules. The judicial system in the Arab empire is divided into specializing in Muslim cases and non-muslims case. About the case processing of muslims, judicial officials must hear claims of dharma pie, according to the party of them. About non-muslims case, judicial officials must also trial them according to the party of beliefs in non-muslims.The case of the eastern Roman empire, is not be heard in public, and partis still need to pay legal fees. The evidences are provided by who claiming rights. In the trial period, the Tang Dynasty prescribes not only the trial period, but also the real right limitation by special law. And the Roman law only has the lawsuit and the real time limitation.In judge responsibility and protection, the Roman law has not well documented about them. But the Tang Dynasty has made clear responsibility and the protection measures of judicial officials.Through comparing the judicial detective system, studies show that judicial detective system standard, divided into two parts in Tang Dynasty. Internal supervision is the judiciary system, and external supervision mechanism is Yu ShiTai (御史台)system, the remonstration official system, Lu Qiu (录囚)system, etc. Internal and external have constituted a strict detective system. And medieval India doesn’t special detective organs like the Tang Dynasty, just superior supervises their junior, the king supervises his place. For supervision of the king judicature activity, it relies on the religious conservatives. The Arab empire’s Abbas dynasty, Michael Charlie courtyard is approximate to the judicial supervision. The East Roman Empire has no specific judicial supervision, but chief executive and judicial, The Roman emperor, supervises the entire empire judicial activities.By comparing, the results shows that the prison system in Tang already has three of the four functions of modern prison that control function, punishment function and maintenance function. And men and women prisoners are jailed separately. Prisoners, of freedom penalty in Tang Dynasty’s prison are jailed, and Tang Dynasty’s prison also has the same function, like Rome, to held executing prisoners and temporary custody prisoners. Medieval India, and Arab empire’s prisons have evident punish properties. By comparing, it shows that the judicial system in the Tang Dynasty has made brilliant achievements.First, it is the highest achievement judicial system in 7—9th century Asia. Such as India, it still uses Law of Manu (摩奴法论), without complete legal system and judicial system. The Arab empire judicial system can equate with the Tang Dynasty’s. But the judicial system in the Arab empire’s Abbas dynasty, has truly established, and many aspects of the dynasty are still no complete legal system. And Japan and Silla are in social transformation and legal successor stage.Second, it also is the highest achievement in the world. The eastern Roman empire of Eurasia can really equate with Tang Dynasty, in addition to the Arab empire, in 7-9th century world. The east Roman emperor compiles Corpus Iuris Civilis in 6th century, which is the most complete stage, and is first system complete code in the history of Europe even. But it still is a slavery code in Europe history. TangLv Shu Yi (唐律疏义) in the Tang Dynasty has been a feudal legal code and synthesizer.The Tang Dynasty’s laws represent the Chinese legal system, which is the crystallization of the wisdom of Chinese civilization achievements. The Chinese legal system is much different Roman law from the purpose, theory, code compiling of legislation, etc.Meanwhile, in ancient times, the Chinese civilization is the only one of civilization form without interruption in Four Civilization. Therefore, the Chinese legal system is also the only one of the four ancient civilizations existing law system. The Tang dynasty’s law is based on the civilization of ritual and music. So, with the spreading of the Tang Dynasty judicial system, Chinese system culture, ideological culture also come in where affected by the Chinese legal system. Because of introducing into the civilization of ritual and music, local culture is promoted to develop. Eventually, the unity of the east Asian cultures comes true. "The unity of east Asian history and culture, is the product of neighboring states radiation by Chinese culture." This is enough to explain theTang Dynasty judicial system’s special standing in the world.
【Key words】 7-9th century; Tang Dynasty; the Judicial System; Comparative Study;

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