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时间: 2016-7-18 10:22:40    作者: 佚名    来源:中国论文    查看:

司法公正是大家所关注的问题。“司法不公”、“司法腐败”、“地方保护主义”这样否定性评价,不仅出现在学者的著作中,出现在百姓的闲聊中,而且频频出现于党和国家领导人的讲话、官方正式文件中。这足以说明问题的严重性。随着批评和讨论的深入...

司法公正是大家所关注的问题。“司法不公”、“司法腐败”、“地方保护主义”这样否定性评价,不仅出现在学者的著作中,出现在百姓的闲聊中,而且频频出现于党和国家领导人的讲话、官方正式文件中。这足以说明问题的严重性。随着批评和讨论的深入,人们对上述问题根源性认识也逐渐超越了个别法官政治立场不坚定、素质较低之类的似是而非的对人评价而上升到制度的层面。所以,司法制度的改革几乎成为中国大众所有期待性话语中的最强音之一,也就在所难免。进行司法改革是当前法治建设的重要内容,更是我国实施依法治国方略的需要。 历史是一面镜子。今天我们探究司法制度的改革,不能忽略新中国五十余年司法制度的坎坷兴衰。反观我国的司法制度无论是从建国初期,新民主义向社会主义过渡,还是从五十年代开始为土地改革服务,乃至到八十年代又要为改革开放服务,为市场经济建设保驾护航,其起到的积极作用是不容低估的。然而,任何事物都有两面性,正是在这种工具意识下,司法不能展现自己的逻辑,特别是社会主义市场经济体制的建立和依法治国方略的确立,使得传统的司法体制在运行过程受到了越来越多的责难和挑战,改革的呼声日渐高涨。 理论是一面旗帜。江泽民在党的“十五大”报告中指出,要“推进司法改革,从制度上保证司法机关依法独立公正地行使审判权和检察权”。这就是行动指南,从而为司法改革的进行提供了前所未有的机遇。在借鉴历史经验的基础上,从未来着眼,从现实出发,必须探索出符合中国国情,并能与国际接轨、有中国特色的当代司法制度的目标模式,符合依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家的需要。 本文正是沿着上述脉络,紧密围绕建立与社会主义法治国家相适应的当代司法制度目标模式,在以下各章中展开论述的。 第一章新中国司法制度的历史演变 这一章从1949年新中国建立为开端,分析了不同历史时期,司法制度的培育、生成与发展,肯定了成就,总结经验和教训,为进一步深入研究司法改革奠定了史料基础。
第二章司法改革的理论架构 这一章着重阐述了司法改革所涉及的理论学说。首先,对学界争议较大的司法权的性质问题给予了定位,什么是司法权及司法的本质属性是什么,这是研究司法改革必须首先回答的问题;其次分析了司法改革的价值目标体系,阐述了为实现司法改革的价值目标应遵循的五个基本原则以及司法资源的优化配置问题。本章最后以结束语的形式,对司法改革所涉猎的问题进行了宏观思考,为进一步研究奠定了理论基础。
第三章现行司法制度的反思、构建与制度创新。在这一章着力分析、反思和构建了我国法院体制、法官制度、证据制度及检察制度;立体式地对司法改革中五种权力关系进行了价值分析和功能评判,即司法与执政党的权力关系、司法与人大的权力关系,司法与政府的权力关系,司法机构之间的权力关系以及各司法机构内部的权力关系,提出了构建新司法制度的思路。
第四章司法改革与依法治国 本章从战略高度论述了依法治国方略的确立、如何坚持依法治国与以德治国的基本方略,并解析了司法改革与依法治国的关系问题。
【关键词】 司法制度; 历史演变; 司法改革;
 Judicial fairness is the question that people pay more attention to. Such negatory appraisals as judicial unfairness, corruption injustice or local protectionism not only appear in scholars’ works and conversation of common people, but frequently appear in the speeches and official documents given by party and state leaders, which fully demonstrate the seriousness of the problems. Going deep into criticism and discussion, people’s primary understanding on the above-mentioned problems has gradually been raised to a new level. Therefore, it is unavoidable that judicial system reform has almost become one of the strongest voices from mass population of China. To carry through judicial reform is the important content of current law system construction, and is even the needs in strategy for China to rule the country by law.History is a mirror. Nowadays, we probe into the reform of judicial system, and can not neglect frustration, rise and decline occurred in the judicial system of China in the past 50 years. The active role of judicial system of China can not be overestimated either in foundation of new China transferring from new democracy to socialism or in serving land reform at the beginning of 50s, even in serving reform and opening up in the 80s to guarantee successful development of market economy construction. However, every coin has two sides. Under this consciousness, the justice can not display its own logic, in particular, the foundation of socialist market economic system and establishment of general plan for ruling the country by law make the traditional judicial system to be confronted with more and more rebukes and challenges during its operation, and the voice for reform has been increasingly louder and louder.Theory is a flag. "The judicial reform should be pushed forward toguarantee judicial organs to exercise judicial power and prosecutorial power dependently and justly according to judicial system", pointed out in Sixteenth Party Congresses Report addressed by Chairman Jiang Zemin. This is the guide for action and, therefore, provides unprecedented opportunities for the development of judicial reform. On the basis of learning from historical experience, we must focus on the future and set about realistically to search out modern objective model of judicial system with Chinese characteristics that tallies with national conditions of China and also can integrate with the world and to accord with the needs of ruling the country by law and establishing socialist institutionalized country.Along with the above-mentioned sequence of ideas, this paper discusses the modern objective model of judicial system in conformity with socialist institutionalized country in the following chapters.Chapter 1 Historical evolution of China’s judicial systemThis chapter begins from the foundation of new China in 1949, affirms achievements and summarizes experiences and lessons by analyzing cultivation, generation and development of judicial system in different historical period, which lay the basis of historical material for further going deep into judicial reform.Chapter 2 Theoretical structure of judicial reformThis chapter emphasizes on elaborating theoretical theory concerned with judicial reform.Firstly, this chapter defines the nature of judicial power that causes much dispute in academic circle: what is judicial power and what is the essential attributes of justice. This is the questions that need answering in the firstplace when researching judicial reform.Secondly, this chapter analyzes value target system of judicial reform and celebrates the five basic principles essential for fulfilling value target of judicial reform and optimizing configuration of judicial resources.Finally, this chapter ends by the form of peroration to ponder macroscopically over the problems concerned with judicial reform, which lays theoretical basis for further research.Chapter 3 Profound consideration, establishment and innovation for current judicial systemThis chapter emphasizes.
【Key words】 Judicial system; historical evolution; judicial reform;

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