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地方政府知识产权战略管理分析研究,战略管理[CQVIP免费论文网]谈文如何写,战略管理[CQVIP免费论文网]谈文范文,战略管理[CQVIP免费论文网]谈文如何写大纲

时间: 2016-6-11 11:32:51    作者: 佚名    来源:中国论文    查看:

技术扩散与文化扩散一向是发展中国家发挥后发优势的一个重要凭借。知识产权制度产生以来,这滴“浇在智慧火花上的利益之油”,给创新者、文化产品的缔造者提供了一定时期内的经济利益的激励,使得创新产品、文化产品以前所未有的速度迅速发展起来。但是,对于技术与文化比较落后的地区来说,知识产...

技术扩散与文化扩散一向是发展中国家发挥后发优势的一个重要凭借。知识产权制度产生以来,这滴“浇在智慧火花上的利益之油”,给创新者、文化产品的缔造者提供了一定时期内的经济利益的激励,使得创新产品、文化产品以前所未有的速度迅速发展起来。但是,对于技术与文化比较落后的地区来说,知识产权制度也提高了技术模仿和复制的成本,拉大了强者与弱者之间竞争优势的差距,成为横亘在他们发展道路上的一条鸿沟。进入十九世纪以来,随着发达国家对知识产权国际规则的不断细化,尤其是WTO成员的增加,使得Trips协议成为世界大多数国家必须遵守的共同规则。发达国家倚仗他们多年积累的雄厚知识产权资产,以及他们在国际规则决策权的优势,迫使发展中国家接受远远高于他们经济社会发展阶段的知识产权保护标准。我国加入WTO以来,企业已经切身感受到知识产权国际规则对国际贸易的影响力。国际市场上,发达国家在国际贸易竞争中屡屡使用知识产权手段限制我国企业的发展。进入二十一世纪以后,上海等东部沿海地区已经率先完成了工业化,开始向知识经济跨越,知识型企业的比例迅速增加,与以往的经济形式相比,它们更需要一个完善的知识产权制度来保护他们的创新和创意。于是,在美日韩等国实施知识产权战略取得成功的示范效应影响下,上海开始启动知识产权战略。知识产权战略具有政治属性、经济属性、法律属性、科技文化属性,它的具体措施与政府其他既定战略和政策有很强的关联性,所以,地方政府在知识产权战略的决策、执行过程中需要解决各种难题,如:战略目标的清晰;战略与经济阶段和企业知识产权能力的匹配;部门利益的协调;战略管理者的战略思维;国家的知识产权战略即将出台,地方的知识产权战略必须转变原来的制度路径,在战略组织、战略决策、战略模式等方面与国家战略接轨。这也是本文第三章的主要内容。第四章论述了地方政府知识产权战略组织体系的构成,重点分析了知识产权战略管理主体的组织结构与内部外部关系。本文借用了企业管理中战略小组的概念,认为上海知识产权联席会议扮演着知识产权战略小组的角色,上海知识产权局居于战略小组的核心地位。战略管理的目标群体主要是企业、中介机构、知识产权利益相关人等,政府通过政治、经济、教育、强制等手段对他们进行利益调整和行为指引,同时,企业、中介机构、公民也参与战略制定过程,对政府决策的执行产生反作用。专家学者与利益集团等外部影响因素通过各种途径对政府的战略决策施加影响。从形式上看,上海联席会议的组织形式属于委员会制,采取的是集体决策的方式。实际运行中却是知识产权局领导下的直线职能式,决策机制仍为民主集中制。联席会议的设立解决了权力分割的问题,缺陷是对知识产权局授权不足。知识产权局扮演着战略决策者的角色,在战略小组中居于核心地位,但是,法律对知识产权局的授权只有专利行政管理的权力,并没有对其他知识产权进行宏观协调管理的权力,产生了指挥控制不良、信息传递不畅、组织效率低下的弊端。解决问题的方法是集中决策权,把权力归新设立的知识产权战略小组行使,或者把权力授予知识产权局。第五章的内容主要是借用企业资源基础论与战略环境分析的方法,从政治、经济、社会、科技文化等方面探讨上海实施知识产权战略所具有的各种资源,归纳出战略环境中能够产生影响的关键因素。然后对战略资源与外部环境进行匹配,提出了三种决策方案。第六章对上海知识产权战略的一项主要措施——专利资助政策进行了案例分析。该政策减轻了申请人的经济压力,刺激了专利申请的热情,社会知识产权意识开始增强,专利申请量大幅攀升,增强了上海的知识产权实力。但是也产生了一些负效应,如申请量出现泡沫,外观设计专利畸形增长,市场竞争力强的发明专利的比例反而降低,对企业知识产权竞争力的推动作用与高额财政支出不成比例。上海专利资助政策之所以产生如此的负效应,除了政策本身的不合理之外,也有战略管理组织结构方面的原因,如战略小组决策机制的不合理,行业协会、跨国公司对政府战略决策的影响,企业、中介机构、公民有自身的利益需求对政策效果的抵消作用等等,另一个原因是对组织战略资源和环境中的机会利用不足。本文综合考虑了专利资助政策的制度缺陷与申请人的利益需求,提出了该项政策的改进建议。
【关键词】 知识产权; 战略; 管理; 地方政府; 上海;
【Abstract】 The science and technology is the most important productive forces, in history,the developing countries made use of the After advantage importantly by virtue of thetechnology diffusion and culture diffusion. Essentially, Intellectual property rightssystem is a legitimate property right that confirmed by states, the owner of intellectualproperty were awarded a certain period of monopoly rights, If the other people wantto use it, he must have the permission of owner, Since it has produced, the intellectualproperty system, as the fuel of interest added to the fire of genius, Stimulate theinnovators with economic interests, made innovation activities devloped rapidly, asDoglas.C. North said, a set of incentive system, which stimulating technicalImprovement, improving innovator’s private yield close to social yield, wasestablished only with patent system was established.But, for poverty regions, the intellectual property system raised the cost ofimitation and copying, larged the gap of the strong and the weak. Since the 19thcentury, with the developed countries fine the international intellectual property rules,and more and more countris joined in WTO, TRIPs has been the common game rulearound the world. The developed countries forced the the developing countriesaccepted the intellectual property system which much more higher than theireconomy affordability.Since China’s accession to WTO, businesses feel the impact of internationalintellectual property rules. In the international trade markets, the developed countriesoften fired them by intellectual property rights. Meanwhile, Shanghai has the demandfor intellectual property system to finish its economic restructuring. So, in U.S., japan,Korea’s effects, Shanghai commenced the proceeding of intellectual property strategy.Because intellectual property strategy has political attribute, economic attribute, legalattribute, technological attributes, it has links with much kinds of other governmentpolicy, and it must solve many problems, for example: how is the clearity of thestrategic objectives; how does strategy fit the economy and companies’ intellectual property capacity; how to coordinate the department conflict of interest; if themanagers have the strategic thinking. This is the main content of the third section.The fourth section expounds the organizational structure of Shanghai intellectualproperty strategy. Used the terminology "Strategic Group" in enterprisemanagement, and recognize that Shanghai Intellectual Property Federation(IPF) playsthe "Strategic Group" role, and Shanghai Intellectual Property Administration(IPA) isthe core of the Strategic Group. Target population of strategic management is consistof enterprises, intermediaries, related persons to intellectual property rights. Theyhave interactions with government. Experts and interest groups also affectgovernment strategic decision.Shanghai IPF seems that it’s the committee system, but, in fact, it’s linearfunction system, and its decision mode is still the democratic centralism. IPF solvedthe problem of power segmentation, but, its vulnerability is the IPA does’t has enoughpower. So, there is many knots, such as difficulties on leading and ruling, informationtransmission isn’t smooth, lower efficiency. The solution is concentrating the decisionpower, and give the power to IPA, or to new IPF.In the fifth section, author uses resource based view and strategy environmentanalytic technique, probe into the resources that Shanghai can wield, and the keyelements in the environment, then, proposes three decision plans that fit the resourcesand environment.The sixth section is empirical analysis about Shanghai Patent Subsidies Policy.This policy released the economical stress of applicants, encouraged the applyingpassion, sparked the patent application quantity, strengthened their intellectualproperty potency. But, it had some negative effects, as to, led to explosion of designs,yet brought down the percent of patents, which have more stronger competitiveness.In the end, according to the defects of system arrangement of the policy, the authorraises advises for improvement.
【Key words】 intellectual property; strategy; management; local government; Shanghai;

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