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时间: 2016-6-4 15:50:39    作者: 佚名    来源:中国论文    查看:

高技术产业是知识密集和技术密集的产业,是代表一个国家综合国力和整体竞争力的重要先导产业,高技术产业发展的状态与水平在很大程度上影响着国民经济与社会的发展。自上世纪九十年代以来,发展拥有自主知识产权的高技术产业,已经成为国家综合国力竞争的焦点。美国、西欧、日本等经济发达国家,都把发展高技术及其产业化纳...

高技术产业是知识密集和技术密集的产业,是代表一个国家综合国力和整体竞争力的重要先导产业,高技术产业发展的状态与水平在很大程度上影响着国民经济与社会的发展。自上世纪九十年代以来,发展拥有自主知识产权的高技术产业,已经成为国家综合国力竞争的焦点。美国、西欧、日本等经济发达国家,都把发展高技术及其产业化纳入本国21世纪发展战略核心。从上世纪80年代开始,我国高技术产业进入了蓬勃发展时期,在高技术研究开发及产业化领域不断取得重要进展。本文在归纳总结国内外有关高技术产业创新发展研究成果的基础上,对高技术产业创新发展的动力机制、激励机制和约束机制及其内在关联性进行了系统的理论分析。高技术产业创新发展的动力来源于技术、市场、竞争和政府四个方面;激励机制主要包括市场激励和社会激励,对激励机制作用机理的分析将有助于政府制定高技术产业的激励政策;同时高技术产业创新发展还受到基于企业层面、基于产业层面以及基于社会环境层面等三方面约束机制的影响。为全面准确评价我国高技术产业创新发展现状,本研究在对高技术产业运行机制深入分析的基础上,根据指标体系建立的原则和我国高技术产业创新发展特点,结合2007年我国工业企业创新调查表,构建了由高技术产业创新环境与基础、高技术产业创新投入、高技术产业创新产出、高技术产业创新能力与潜力和高技术产业创新企业家素质等五个一级指标和28个二级指标的我国高技术产业创新理论指标体系。在比较分析各种评价方法的基础上,选择了将客观的因子分析和聚类分析加以组合展开高新技术产业创新的评价;采用结合专家打分的层次分析法对高技术产业创新发展再次进行综合评价;提出了高技术产业自有技术成份的测度方法;采用DEA—Malmquist指数法对高技术产业资源配置效率进行动态评价。在实证研究中,采用因子分析法、层次分析法对江苏高技术产业创新发展进行综合评价,并对评价结果进行聚类分析;并对江苏高技术产业自有技术成分进行了测度;在此基础上,对江苏高技术产业资源配置效率进行了评价分析。结果表明,江苏高技术产业创新发展总体态势良好的,但行业间发展并不平衡,新材料、计算机及办公设备制造业、电子及通讯设备制造业、电气机械及设备制造业的创新发展水平较高,而医药制造业、航空航天制造业、专用科学仪器设备制造业的创新发展水平较低。在对战略管理主要方法分析比较的基础上,将定量分析方法引入战略管理中,探索性的将定性定量相结合的研究方法应用于高技术产业创新发展战略管理中,即将C-SWOT分析法应用于高技术产业的战略研究。通过给决策者提供动态的SWOT分析环境,在坐标体系(Coordinates)中构建了一个包括战略方位角和战略强度的战略向量,通过计算各战略因素的力度,构筑战略四边形,通过对战略类型(?)战略强度(?)的选择来判定战略地位,从定量分析的角度描述产业发展态势和市场地位,引导决策者进行战略定位与战略选择。本文以江苏省为例,根据专家意见法获得的相关数据,计算出江苏高技术产业创新发展的SWOT力度,构筑江苏高技术产业创新发展的战略四边形,并计算出战略方位角,从而在战略类型与战略强度谱系图中对江苏高技术产业的战略进行定位。战略定位结果表明:江苏高技术产业创新发展的战略定位于开拓型战略区域中,即应充分发挥自身优势,采取实力型的开拓发展战略。在此基础上,提出了江苏高技术产业创新发展的具体战略重点和战略内容。主要为:积极拓展江苏高技术产品的国内外市场;增强优势产业核心竞争力;积极培育新兴产业;有效整合江苏科技资源;加大高技术产业技术的研发力度;营造良好的技术、人才政策支持环境;着力发展资源环境友好的低碳产业;提高自主知识产权技术的产出和应用能力;加快提升自主创新能力。本研究的创新之处在于:首先,运用创新理论、产业经济学理论、战略管理理论的理论和方法,全面系统的分析了高技术产业创新发展的动力机制、激励机制和约束机制的运行机理及其关联性,为评价高技术产业创新发展现状、制定高技术产业创新发展战略及政策建议提供了系统的理论支持。其次,根据高技术产业创新发展的运行机制,结合现阶段我国高技术产业创新发展的趋势特点,遵循指标设立原则,构建了我国高技术产业创新发展评价的理论指标体系、方法体系和组织体系;将企业家素质与创新意识作为一项重要影响因素引入高技术产业创新发展评价体系中。第三,界定了高技术产业自有技术概念的内涵,提出了测度高技术产业自有技术成份的方法,通过创建自有技术占有率和自有技术贡献率指标,实现了对高技术产业自有技术成份的准确测度。采用DEA-Malquist指数法对高技术产业资源配置效率进行分析,从投入产出的角度对高技术产业创新发展综合评价的结果和自有技术成分测度的结果进行解释,通过Malquist指数分解,找出了影响高技术产业不同行业创新发展的关键因素。第四,将定量研究方法引入战略管理研究中,探索性将C-SWOT分析法用于高技术产业创新发展战略研究中,为高技术产业创新发展战略选择和战略定位提供了一种定性定量相结合的研究方法,为研究制定我国(区域)高技术产业创新发展战略具有借鉴和指导意义。
【关键词】 高技术产业; 创新发展; 评价; 战略;
【Abstract】 High-tech industry is a knowledge-intensive and technology-intensive industry. High-tech industry is also the major leading industry on behalf of the comprehensive national strength and the overall competitiveness of a country. The development status and level of high-tech industry have influenced on the national economic and social development to a large extent. Since the nineties of last century, the development of high-tech industries with independent intellectual property rights has become the competitive focus of the comprehensive national strength. United States, Western Europe, Japan and other developed countries regard the development and industrialization of high technology into the core of their development strategy in the 21st century. Since the 80’s, China’s high-tech industry has entered a period of vigorous development with significant progress in R&D and industrialization of high technology.This paper summarizes the research results of innovation development of domestic and foreign high-tech industry. Then it carries out the systematically theoretical analysis on the dynamic mechanism, the incentive mechanism, and the restraint mechanism and their relevance of innovation development in the high-tech industry. The driving force for innovation and development of high-tech industry comes from four aspects:technology, competition, demand and government. The incentive mechanism mainly includes market incentives and social incentives. Analysis on the incentives of the mechanism is helpful for the government to formulate incentive policies of high-tech industry. At the same time, innovation and development of high-tech industry is also influenced by three aspects of restraint mechanism:based on the enterprise level, based on the industry level and based on the level of the social environment.To comprehensively and accurately assess the status quo of innovation and development of Chinese high-tech industry,. this study makes a deep analysis on the mechanism of high-tech industry. According to innovate features of high-tech industry innovative and the principle of index system, it establishes an index system of innovation theory in China’s high-tech industry which includes five first-level indicators and 28 second-level indicators using the data of China’s Industrial Enterprises’ Innovation in 2007 questionnaire. Based on the comparative analysis of various evaluation methods, it chooses the objective factor analysis and cluster analysis to make the evaluation of high-tech industry innovation. What’s more, it uses AHP’s experts scoring to verify and comprehensively evaluate the development level of high-tech industry. It proposes the measurement method of its own technical components for the high-tech industry and adopts the method of DEA-Malmquist index to dynamically evaluate the efficiency of resource allocation of high-tech industries. In the empirical study, it uses the factor analysis and AHP to evaluate comprehensively the innovative development of Jiangsu high-tech industry, and then analyzes the evaluation results by cluster analysis. It also measures its own technical components for Jiangsu high-tech industry. On this basis, it makes an evaluative analysis on the efficiency of resource allocation in Jiangsu high-tech industries. The result shows that the innovative development of Jiangsu high-tech industry is in good shape in general, but there is an imbalance among industries. Industries have higher innovative level such as new materials, computers and office equipment manufacturing, electronic and communications equipment manufacturing, electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing, while the followings have lower level of innovation:pharmaceutical manufacturing, aerospace manufacturing, special scientific equipment manufacturing.Based on the analysis and comparison of the main methods of strategic management, the quantitative analysis is introduced in the strategic management and this paper makes the exploration of combining quantitative and qualitative methods to research the strategic management of the innovation development of high-tech industries, namely, the C-SWOT analysis method is applied in the strategic research of the innovation development of the high-tech industries. By providing the dynamic SWOT analysis environment for the decision makers, this paper has established the strategic quadrangle through calculating the intensity of strategic factors. The strategic position is determined by the selection of the strategic typeθand the strategic choicep. Therefore, from the perspective of quantitative analysis, the industry development trend and its market position are described to guide the decision makers to make the strategic positioning and selections. This paper takes Jiangsu Province as example; and according to the relevant data obtained through the expert suggestions, it calculates the SWOT intensity of the innovation development of Jiangsu high-tech industries, establish the corresponding strategic quadrangle and calculate the strategic azimuth in order to make positioning for Jiangsu high-tech industries in the strategic type and the strategic strength pedigree charts. And the results show that the strategic positioning of the innovation development of Jiangsu high-tech industries should be in the pioneering strategic area. So they should give full play to their strengths and develop strength-based development strategies. On this basis, the concrete strategic focus and contents of the innovation development of Jiangsu high-tech industries are put forward. And the above focus and contents are mainly as follows:actively expand domestic and foreign markets of Jiangsu hi-tech products; reinforce the core competiveness of the advantageous industries; actively cultivate new industries; effectively integrate technology resources in Jiangsu; increase technology research and development of high-tech industries; create a sound technical and personnel policy supporting environment; focus on developing resources and environment-friendly low-carbon economy; improve the output and application capacities of the intellectual property rights; speed up to enhance capability of independent innovation.Creative points of this study are as follows:Firstly, it applies the innovation theory, the theory of industrial economics and the theory of strategic management to comprehensively and systematically analyze the operating mechanisms and the correlations among the dynamic mechanism, the incentive mechanism and the constraint mechanism of the high-tech industrial innovative development. The study provides theoretical support for evaluating the status quo of innovative development of high-tech industry, setting up the strategy and policy for the innovative development of high-tech industry. Secondly, in accordance with features and trends of the innovation development of our country’s high-tech industries, this paper has established the theoretical indicator system, the methodical system and the structure system in accordance with the principle of establishing indicators. Thirdly, it defines the connotation of its own technical component for the high-tech industry and proposes the measurement method. By setting up the domination rate and the contribution rate of its own technology, it accurately measures its own technical component for the high-tech industry. With the method of DEA-Malquist index, the efficiency of resource allocation of high-tech industries is analyzed. The results of comprehensive evaluation and its own technical components are explained from the angle of input and output. By decomposing the Malquist index, it finds out the key factors influencing the innovative development of different industry in the high-tech industry. Fourthly, the quantitative research methods are introduced in the strategic management research to explore the application of C-SWOT analysis method in the research of making strategies of the innovation development of the high-tech industries, which offers a research method combing the qualitative and quantitative research for the selection and positioning of innovative-development strategy in the high-tech industry and has importance and directive significance in making the strategies for the innovation development of our country’s (regional) high-tech industries.
【Key words】 High-tech Industry; Innovation and Development; Evaluation; Strategy;

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